NEWYORK HISTORY in the beginning of 16th and 17th Century.
Newyork history dates back to 16th century. New York was founded as a commercial trading post by the Dutch East India Company in 1624. The settlement was called New Amsterdam until 1664 when the colony came under British control.
England seized the land in 1664 and changed its name to New York and introduced jury trials and a permanent court system. The settlement, which had grown to 1,500 people, contained a city hall, a church, a canal (later Broad Street), a wall (Wall Street), a main street (Broadway), and about 300 houses.
New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, and has been the nation's largest city since 1790.
George Washington was inaugurated president on 30 April 1789 on the balcony of City Hall, renamed Federal Hall, as New York City became the nation's first capital.
Adding to the city's growing importance was the founding of the New York Stock Exchange in 1792 and Bellevue Hospital in 1794; the voyage of Robert Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont, to Albany in 1807; the adoption of the grid or Commissioners Plan in 1811; and the opening of Central Park in 1857.
The population grew from sixty thousand in 1800 to nearly one million, almost half foreign born, by 1860. Most immigrants in the 1840s were from Ireland, with German immigration rising sharply in the 1850s. But with growth came problems. Rising crime and city state competition led to the creation of a centralized state controlled police force in 1857.
Outbreaks of yellow fever and cholera increased the role of city government in public health matters. In 1834, after years of pressure to expand the elective process, New York held its first post colonial popular mayoral election, won by Democrat Cornelius Lawrence.
New York was created in 1898 as the five boroughs—Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, and Staten Island—were incorporated into a single municipality (reference detail in the next page). By 1900, the city's population exceeded three million. Two thirds were foreign born, with 300,000 immigrants from Germany, followed by Ireland with 275,000, Russia (180,000), and Italy (145,000). Jewish immigrants fleeing persecution in eastern Europe arrived in great numbers as well. African Americans comprised 10 percent of the population.
The Statue of Liberty (1886) in New York harbor symbolized the city's role as a mecca for immigrants. Bridges linked Manhattan and the boroughs, including the Brooklyn Bridge (1883), Manhattan Bridge (1909), and Queensborough Bridge (1909). Subway construction began in 1900. Steel enabled the growth of skyscrapers, including the Flatiron Building (1902), Woolworth Building (1913), and Empire State Building (1931).
Newyork History in the early 20th Century
New York City became the most populous urbanized area in the world in early 1920s, overtaking London, and the metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in early 1930s becoming the first megacity in human history.
The post–World War II decades accelerated New York's rise to global economic and cultural dominance. In 1945 the newly formed United Nations made the city its permanent home. Parks commissioner Robert Moses (1889–1981) razed entire neighborhoods to build parks, parkways, playgrounds, and public beaches, and inaugurated other monumental undertakings, including the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair.
The completion of the World Trade Center in 1972 bore witness to New York's vitality as an international center not only of commerce and finance, but also publishing, theater, fashion, the arts, intellectual life, and popular culture.
Newyork History in 20th Century
The economic upsurge of the late 1980s and 1990s brought revitalization, however, marked by growing tourism, rising office occupancy rates, a real estate boom, and declining crime statistics. As newcomers continued to arrive, including aspiring young people from across America and immigrants from around the world, New York City remained a symbol of hope, glamour, and opportunity.
The city was one of the sites of the September 11, 2001 attacks, when nearly 3,000 people died in the destruction of the World Trade Center. The Freedom Tower, along with a memorial and three other office towers, will be built on the site and is scheduled for completion in 2013.